guide.php Английская грамматика | Страдательный залог

Страдательный залог

Сравните действительный и страдательный залоги:

My grandfather built this house in 1935. (действительный залог)
This house was built in 1935. (страдательный залог)

В утвердительном предложении в действительном залоге мы говорим, что делает подлежащее.
My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1935.
It’s a big company. It employs two hundred people.
Когда мы употребляем страдательный залог, то мы говорим, что происходит с подлежащим.
This house is quite old. It was built in 1935.
Two hundred people are employed by the company.

Когда мы используем страдательный залог, нас не интересует, кто сделал или что было причиной действия.
A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. (кто-то украл кучу денег, но мы не знаем, кто)
Is this room cleaned every day? (кто-то ее убирает? - неважно, кто)
Мы употребляем by чтобы указать, кто сделал или что явилось причиной действия:
This house was built by my grandfather.
Two hundred people are employed by the company.

Формирование страдательного залога

Форма страдательного залога от глагола делается путем добавления к вспомогательному глаголу be в соответствующем времени формы past participle от основного глагола.

Время Вспомогательный глагол
Едиинственное число Множественное чиисло
Present Simple am / is are
Present Perfect has been have been
Past Simple was were
Past Perfect had been had been
Future Simple will be will be
Future Perfect will have been will have been
Present Continuous is being are being
Past Continuous was being were being

Present Simple
Many accidents are caused by careless driving.
I’m not often invited to parties.
How is this word pronounced?

Present Perfect
Have you heard? The concert has been cancelled.
Have you ever been stinged by bee?
"Are you going to the party?" "No, I haven’t been invited."

Past Simple
We were woken up by a loud knock in the door in the early morning.
These flowers were planted two weeks ago.
How much money was stolen in the robbery?

Past Perfect
The vegetables didn’t taste very good. They had been cooked too long.
The car was three years old but hadn’t been used very much.
The gate looked like new. It had been painted.

Future Simple
The room will be cleaned later.
How much housing will be built next year?
If Dina keep talking so much at work, she will be fired from the firm.

Future Perfect
A lot of money will have been spent during upcoming holidays.
Your letter will not have been opened before your arrival.
Will all these book have been read by the exam time?

Present Continuous
There’s somebody walking behind us. I think we are being followed.
"Can I help you?" "No, thank you. I’m being served"
My car is being repeared just now.

Past Continuous
The room was being cleaned when I arrived.
Mary was being slept when I returned.
When I came in, my lighter was beeing laid on a table.

У некоторых глаголов может быть два дополнения.

Например, give:
Somebody gave the police the information.

Здесь можно сделать два предложения со страдательным залогом:
The police were given the information. и The information was given to the police.

Вот еще глаголы, которые могут иметь два дополнения:
ask   offer   pay   show   teach   tell

Когда мы ииспользуем эти глаголы, то обычно начинаем с человека:
I was offered the job, but I refused it.
He will be given plenty of time to make reasonable decision.
Have you been shown the new machine?
The men were paid £400 to do the work.

Страдательный герундий

Страдательный залог от герундия строится с помощью формы being плюс past participle от основного глагола:
действительный залог: I dislike people telling me what to do.
страдательный залог: I dislike being told what to do.
Вот еще примеры:
I remember walking along the waterfront when I was in Amsterdam last year.
She hates being kept waiting.
Steve managed to cross the street without being seen.

Мы говорим I was born ...:
I was born in Chicago.
Where were you born?
How many babies are born every day?


В страдательном залоге мы можем использовать get вместо be:
There was a fight in the club last night, but nobody got hurt.
I don’t often get invited to parties.
I’m surprised Liz didn’t get offered the job.

Однако, такое использование get возможно только, если происходит какое-то событие. То есть, вы не можете его упоотребиить в следующих предложениях:
Mary is liked by everyone.
He was a mystery man. Very little was known about him.
Мы используем get преимещественно в неформальном разговорном английском, а вот be вы можете употреблять в любых ситуациях.

Некоторые выражения, где мы используем get, имеют значение действительного, а не страдательного залога:
get married
get divorced
get lost (= заблудиться)
get dressed (= одеться)
get changed (= переодеться)