guide.php Английская грамматика | Have to и Must

Have to и Must

Have to

  • Модальный глагол have to используется для выражения безусловной необходимости, обязанности. Предложения с have to строятся следующим обазом:

Утверждение I/We/You/They have to do ...
he/she/it has to
Отрицание I/We/You/They don't have to
he/she/it doesn't have to
Вопрос Do I/We/You/They have to
Does he/she/it have to

  • Приимеры:
  • They have to leave early to be in time to meet them.
  • You can't turn right here. You have to turn left.
  • That has to be Maria. They said she was little bit fat with blonde hair.
  • Karen doesn't have to work Saturdays.
  • What do I have to do to get a new driving licence?
  • Мы уптребляем структуру Past Simple чтобы выразить необходимость или обязанность в прошлом:

Утверждение подлежащее had to do ...
Отрицание подлежащее didn't have to
Вопрос Did подлежащее have to

  • Например:
  • Last week Tina broke her arm and had to go to hospital."
  • Why did you have to leave early?
  • Для будущего мы ставим перед have to либо will, либо might/may:
  • If the pain gets worse, you'll have to go to the doctor.
  • I might have to work late tomorrow evening.

  • Вы можете употреблять have got to также, как и have to. Таким образом можно сказать:
  • I've got to work tomorrow. или I have to work tomorrow.
  • When has Liz got to go? или When does Liz have to go?

  • Must

  • Must аналогичен have to, но больше выражает ваше собственное мнение:
  • Don't tell anybody what I said. You must keep it a secret.
  • We haven't got much time. We must hurry.
  • It's later than I thought. I must go.
  • Mark is a really nice person. You must meet him.
  • Мы используем have to, а не must чтобы сказать что кто-то должен что-то сделать благодаря обстоятельствам.
  • I have to work from 8.30 to 5.30 every day.
  • Nadya has to travel a lot because of her work.
  • Однако must часто употребляется при написании правил и инструкций:
  • Applications for the job must be received by June 11.
  • Нельзя употреблять must когда мы говорим о прошлом:
  • We had to leave early.
  • Mustn't и don't have to имеют совершенно различные значения:
You mustn't do something = необходимо, чтобы вы не делали этого (нельзя этого делать)
You don't have to do something = вы не обязаны этого делать (но вы можете, если хотите)
You must keep it a secret. You mustn't tell anyone.
I promised I would be on time. I mustn't be late.
You don't have to tell him, but you can if you want to.
I don't have to be at the meeting, but I think I'll go anyway.
  • Другая отрицательная форма от must это needn't. Она означает, что нет необходимости что-то делать:
  • You can come with us if you like, but you needn't.
  • We've got plenty of time. We needn't hurry.
  • Вместо needn't, вы можете употребить don't/doesn't need to. Так, вы можете сказать:
  • We needn't hurry. or We don't need to hurry.

  • Для прошлого мы используем Past Simple или Present Perfect, но есть различие в значениях.
  • I didn't need to ... = для меня нет необходимости ... (и я знаю это):
  • I didn't need to get up early, I stayed in bed till 10.
  • I needn't have done something = я сделал это, но теперь я знаю, что в этом не было необходимости:
  • I got up very early because I had to get ready to interview. But in fact it didn't take me long to get ready. So, I needn't have got up so early. I could have stayed in bed longer.

  • Иногда мы употребляем must с глаголами be, get, know, have чтобы сказать что мы в чем-то уверены. В этоим случае отрицанием будет can't.
подлежащее must
be (tired / hungry / at work etc.)
be (doing / going / joking etc.)
do / get / know / have etc.
  • Примеры:
  • You've been travelling all day. You must be tired.
  • "Jim is a hard worker." "Jim? You must be joking. He doesn't do anything."
  • Carol must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing eyery day.
  • I'm sure Sally gave me her phone number. I must have it somewhere.
  • Мы используем can't чтобы выразить уверенность, что что-то невозможно:
  • You've just had lunch. You can't be hungry already.
  • They haven't lived here for very long. They can't know many people.
  • This can't be the right address, there is no house with such number in the street.

  • Для прошлого мы употреблем перфектную форму must have и can't have.
подлежащее must
have been (tired / asleep / at work etc.)
been (doing / going / joking etc.)
done / gone / got / known etc.
  • Например:
  • I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep.
  • "I've lost my keys." "You must have left them at home."
  • Sue hasn't contacted me. She can't have got my message.
  • It's ten o'clock. They can't have arrived now.
  • Вы можете употребить couldn't have вместо can't have:
  • Sue couldn't have got my message.
  • They couldn't have arrived now.