guide.php Английская грамматика | Слова, выражающие количество

Слова, выражающие количество

Мы используем эти слова чтобы выразить, насколько много или мало чего-нибудь есть.

Мы употребляем much и little с неисчисляемыми существительными:
much time, much luck, little energy, little money

Мы употребляем many и few с множественным числом существительных:
many people, many birds, few chairs, few rights

Мы употребляем a lot of, lots of и plenty of как с неисчисляемыми существительными, так и с множественным числом существительных:
a lot of luck, lots of time, plenty of money
a lot of friends, lots of people, plenty of ideas

Мы редко употребляем much в утвердительных предложениях, особенно в разговорном английском. Вместо этого мы используем "a lot".
We didn't spend much money.
но We spent a lot of money.
Do you see David much?
но I see David a lot.

Вы можете использовать many ии a lot of в любых типах предложений:
Many people drive too fast. или A lot of people drive too fast.
Do you know many people? или Do you know a lot of people?
There aren't many tourists here. или There aren't a lot of tourists here.
Заметьте, что мы говорим many years, many weeks, many days, а не a lot of ...:
We've lived here for many years.

Little и few (без a) имеют отрицательное значение со смыслом "не много":
Gary is very busy with his job. He has little time for other things.
Vicky doesn't like living in London. She has few friends there.
Вы можете сказать сильнее: very little и very few:
Gary has very little time for other things.
Vicky has very few friends in London.

A little и a few имеют более положительный смысл.
A little означает некоторое, небольшое количество (неисчисляемое):
Let's go and have a coffee. We have a little time before the train leaves.
"Do you speak English?" "A little."
A few означает некоторое, небольшое число:
I enjoy living in my house in the country. There are a few neighbors and they are very friendly.
"When was the last time you saw Clare?" "A few days ago."
He spoke little English, so it was difficult to communicate with him.
но He spoke a little English, so we were able to communicate with him.
She's lucky. She has few problems.
но Things are not going so well for her. She has a few problems.
Вы можете сказать only a little и only a few:
Hurry! We only have a little time.
The village was very small. There were only a few houses.

Мы используем слова all, some, any, most, much/many, little/few, no с существительными во множественным числом и с неисчисляемыми существительными:
All cars have wheels.
Some cars can go faster than others.
Many people drive too fast.
I'm at home most days.
Со словами all, some, any, most, much/many, little/few, half, none можно использовать структуру:
{some of, most of, half of, none of} + {the, this, those, my} + существительное
Some of the people I work with are not very friendly.
Have you read any of these books?
I was sick yesterday. I spent most of the day in bed.

После all или half  "of" не обязательно. Можно сказать:
All my friends или All of my friends
Half this money или Half of this money
All flowers are beautiful. все цветы вообще
but All of the flowers in this garden are beautiful. специфическая группа
Most problems have a solution. большинство проблем вообще
but We were able to solve most of the problems we had. специфическая группа

Можно использовать структуру:
{all of, some of, most of, none of} + {it, us, you, them}
All of us were late.
I haven't finished the book yet. I've only read half of it.
Do any of you want to come to a party tonight?
"How many of these people do you know?" "A few of them."
"Do you like this music?" "Some of it."

Вы также можете использовать слова some, most и т.д. без существительного:
Some cars have four doors and some have two.
A few of the shops were open, but most were closed