guide.php Английская грамматика | Наречия


Наречие - это слово, используемое для изменения или модифицирования значения прилагательного, глагола, другого наречия, фразы или целого предложения.

В большинстве случаев наречие формируется путем добавления -ly к прилагательному:
прилагательное: quick serious careful quiet heavy bad
наречие: quickly seriously carefully quietly heavily badly

Но не все слова, оканчивающиеся на -ly являются наречиями. Некоторые прилагательные тоже оканчиваются на -ly, например:
friendly lively elderly lonely silly lovely

Основное отличие между прилагательными и наречиями состоит в том, что прилагательные говорят нам о существительном, в то время как наречия говорят нам о том, как кто-то что-то сделал или как что-то произошло. Сравните:
She speaks perfect Spanish. She speaks Spanish perfectly.
His behavior is bad. He behaved very badly.
Happy New Year! Happily, we got our visas in time.
Tom is a careful driver. Tom drove carefully along the narrow road.

Мы также употребляем наречия перед прилагательными и другими наречиями. Например:
It's a reasonably cheap restaurant and the food is extremely good.
I'm terribly sorry. I didn't mean to push you.
Maria learns languages incredibly quickly.
The examination was surprisingly easy.
Вы также можете использовать наречие перед причастием прошедшего времени:
Two people were seriously injured in the accident.
The meeting was very badly organised.

Good - прилагательное. Well - наречие:
Your English is good. You speak English well.
Susan is a good pianist. Susan plays the piano well.
Мы употребляем well с причастиями прошедшего времени:
well-dressed well-known well-educated well-paid
Но "well" - также и прилагательное. Оно означает "в хорошем самочувствии":
"How are you today?" "I'm very well, thanks."

Fast, hard, late могут быть и прилагательными, и наречиями:
Darren is a very fast runner.
Kate is a hard worker.
I was late.
Darren can run very fast.
Kate works hard.
I got up late this morning.

Lately означает "недавно":
Have you seen Tom lately?

Hardly означает "очень мало, почти ничего":
Sarah wasn't very friendly at the party. She hardly spoke to me.
We've only met once or twice. We hardly know each other.
Сравните hard и hardly:
He tried hard to find a job, but he had no luck.
I'm not surprised he didn't find a job. He hardly tried to find one.
Можно употреблять hardly + any/anybody/anyone/anything/anywhere:
"How much money have we got?" "Hardly any."
These two cameras are very similar. There's hardly any difference between them.
The exam results were very bad. Hardly anybody in our class passed.
"I can hardly do something" означает "это очень трудно для меня, почти невозможно":
Your writing is terrible. I can hardly read it.
My leg was hurting me. I could hardly walk.
Hardly ever означает "почти никогда":
I'm nearly always at home in the evenings. I hardly ever go out.
Hardly также может значить "определенно нет":
It's hardly surprising that you're tired. You haven't slept for three days.
Yes, you did it, but it's hardly a half of success.