guide.php Английская грамматика | Инфинитив


Инфинитив это основная форма глагола с частицей to.

Вы можете использовать инфинитив
как подлежащее:.
To be around her all day becomes tiring.
To learn is important.
Nowdays, to browse the Web is necessity.
как завершающее дополнение:.
The decision was to extend the deadline by three weeks.
The only thing you must do is to open the door.
While making changes it's essential to maintain the symmetry.
как дополнение:.
We had plenty of time, so we decided to make a new version of program.
Where did you live when you learnt to drive?
I waved to my girl but failed to attract her attention.

Отрицательная форма строится путем добавления not.
We decided not to go out because of the heavy rain.
I promised not to be late.

Есть также Continuous инфинитив (to be doing) и Perfect инфинитив (to have done):
I pretended to be reading the newspaper.
You seem to have lost weight.
Martin seems to be enjoying his new job

После некоторых глаголов вы можете употребить вопросительное слово (what/whether/how etc.) + to ... . Мы используем такую структуру после: ask, decide, know, remember, forget, explain, learn, understand, wonder:
We asked how to get to the station.
Have you decided where to go if you leave the job?
Do you understand what to do?

Make и let имеют структуру make/let + дополнение + основня форма глагола(без to):
I made him promise that he wouldn't ask her for help.
Hot weather makes me feel tired.
Her parents wouldn't let her go out alone.
Let me carry your bag for you.

После некоторых глаголов может следовать только инфинитив:
afford She could not afford to pay.
agree Tom agreed to help me.
appear His health appeared to be better.
arrange My wife arranged to spend a week in a summer house near a river.
care She doesn't care to work more efficiently.
claim She claimed to be a princess.
decide We decided to go to Hawaii.
demand He demanded to speak to Mr. Harris.
deserve He deserves to go to jail.
determine He determined to leave for Amsterdam.
fail He failed to get enough money to invest for the new project.
(be allowed)
Debbie gets to go to the concert next week! Why can't I?
happen She happened to be on the street when the rain started.
hesitate She hesitated to tell me the problem.
hope I hope to begin college this year.
intend We intend to visit you next spring.
learn I learned to speak French at primary school.
manage He managed to open the door without any key.
offer Frank offered to go to the pub near the beach.
plan We plan to go to the US in winter.
pretend The child pretended to be a monster.
refuse The guard refused to let us enter the building.
seem Nancy seemed to be disappointed.
swear She swore to tell the truth.
tend He tends to be a little shy.
vow He vowed to get revenge.
wait She waited to buy a movie ticket.
yearn Melanie yearns to travel somewhere exotic.
После некоторых глаголов может идти существительное с инфинитивом:
В некоторых случаях существительное обязательно, в других случаях - нет.
Глагол + Обязательное существительное + Инфинитив:
cause He caused her to make a mistake.
convince Ned convinced me to quit my job.
enable Donations enabled the students to pay such expensive tuition fees.
force The officer forced the soldiers to go out from the casern.
(cause to)
Lora got Mike to wash her car.
hire Mr. Donelly hired Sarah to work as a receptionist.
invite We invited them to join us.
order The police ordered him to pull all the things out of his pockets.
remind The hostess has reminded me to pay the bills.
tell He told me to shut up.
warn She warned him not to be late.

Глагол + Необязательное существительное + Инфинитив:
ask She asked to leave. She asked him to leave.
choose I chose to help out. I chose him to help out.
expect They expect to arrive early. The expect him to arrive early.
prepare They prepared to take the test. They prepared her to take the test.
promise She promised to stop smoking. She promised him to stop smoking.
threaten He threatened to leave forever. He threatened her to leave forever.
want I want to study Spanish. I want my son to study Spanish.
wish I wish to stay. I wish him to stay.
would like We would like to start now. We would like him to start now.
Есть глаголы, за которыми может следовать либо герундий, либо существительное + инфинитив:
advise I advised seeing a doctor. I advised them to see a doctor.
allow Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars. Ireland doesn't allow people to smoke in bars.
encourage He encourages eating healthy foods. He encourages his patients to eat healthy foods.
permit Norway doesn't permit fishing without a fishing license. Norway doesn't permit people to fish without a fishing license.
require The certificate requires completing two courses. The certificate requires students to complete two courses.
urge They urge recycling bottles and paper. They urge citizens to recycle bottles and paper.
За некоторыми глаголами следует только герундий.